27:8). 9. Breughel and Georges de la Tour depicted Job visited by his wife, and William Blake produced an entire cycle of illustrations for the book. The name (sadday) is used of God 31 times in Job (compared with 17 times elsewhere in the Old Testament) and was a name familiar to the patriarchs. Job’s daughters were heirs of his estate along with their brothers (Job. Im afraid you heard wrong. The Book of Job was written in the time of the patriarchs, 1900-1700 BC. Because it is very old and the book does not identify the author, there is no way to be entirely sure who wrote Job or exactly when it was written. Job's opening monologue and dialogues between Job and his three friends, Three monologues: Poem to Wisdom, Job's closing monologue, and Elihu's speeches, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBarton2008 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWheeler2002 (, William Blake produced an entire cycle of illustrations for the book, Book of Job in Byzantine illuminated manuscripts, The Connection Between Tisha B’Av and Sefer Iyov (Job), https://ggbooks.ca/past-winners-and-finalists, "Job II: Ancient Near Eastern Background", "Chapter 5. 8. Ancient Jewish tradition credits the authorship of the book of Job in the Hebrew Bible to Moses. Permission is granted to use in digital or printed form so long as it is circulated without charge, and in its entirety. In 2015 two Ukrainian composers Roman Grygoriv and Illia Razumeiko created opera-requiem IYOV. [citation needed], The Book of Job has been deeply influential in Western culture, to such an extent that no list could be more than representative. ©2021 Probe Ministries | Designed and Managed by Adquest Creative, "What Will Keep Us From Being Jealous About Others' Rewards in Heaven? [30], Job is an investigation of the problem of divine justice. 77–101)", Hebrew and English Parallel and Complete Text of the Book of Job, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Book_of_Job&oldid=996208912, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from May 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [22] Many later scholars down to the 20th century looked for an Aramaic, Arabic or Edomite original, but a close analysis suggests that the foreign words and foreign-looking forms are literary affectations designed to lend authenticity to the book's distant setting and give it a foreign flavor. Discover more in Peter’s new book Dear Theophilus Job: 40 Insights About Moving from Despair to Deliverance. www.probe.org. Job was a common West Semitic name in the second millennium B.C. The Book of Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, is an account of the creation of the world, the early history of humanity, Israel's ancestors, and the origins of the Jewish people. Michael Wise, Martin Abegg, Jr, and Edward Cook, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 04:28. The Book of Job may be divided into two sections of prose narrative, consisting of a prologue chapters 1—2 and an epilogue chapter —17 , and intervening poetic disputation chapters 3— The prose narratives date to before the 6th century bce , and the poetry has been dated between the … He is the author of several books, including Christian Ethics in Plain Language, Genetic Engineering, Origin Science, Signs of Warning, Signs of Hope and Making the Most of Your Money in Tough Times. Sack cloth & ashes. ", "What Makes the Bible a Reliable Text on Angels? Its Hebrew name is the same as its first word, Bereshit ("In the beginning").. The date of when the book of Job was written would be determined by who was the author. He protests his innocence, lists the principles he has lived by, and demands that God answer him. [1] The book is found in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and is the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. 10. "[1] The conventional answer in ancient Israel was that God rewards virtue and punishes sin (the principle known as "retributive justice"). Job’s wealth was reckoned in livestock (1:3; 42:12) which was also true of Abraham (Gen. 12:16) and Jacob (Gen. 30:43). Thus, it would appear that Job lived well into his 200s or beyond. The Pentateuch (the first five books by Moses) would have been written after the time of the Patriarchs, so Job would be, by default, the oldest book in the Bible. Job then confesses his lack of wisdom, meaning his lack of understanding of the workings of the cosmos and of the ability to maintain it. But this claim is rejected by many modern scholars and instead they suggest that Elihu, Solomon, and Ezra could be the authors of the book. Others believe the book to be the work of an unnamed author, perhaps of the time … Epilogue – Job's restoration (chapters 42:9–17). [27] Wisdom literature from Sumeria and Babylonia can be dated to the third millennium BCE. The Sabeans and Chaldeans (Job 1:15, 17) were nomads in Abraham’s time, but in later years were not. Al-Joura was a place of annual festivities (four days in all) when people of many faiths gathered and bathed in a natural spring. Plano TX 75075 The second speech concerns God's role in controlling behemoth and leviathan, sometimes translated as the hippopotamus and crocodile, but more probably representing primeval cosmic creatures, in either case demonstrating God's wisdom and power. Their antithesis were the wicked, who were selfish and greedy. You know how gospel means "good news"? [53], The contemporary movement known as creation theology, an ecological theology valuing the needs of all creation, interprets God's speeches in Job 38–41 to imply that his interests and actions are not exclusively focused on humankind.[54]. The book deals with similar themes … What does literacy in the Iron Age have to do with it? [21][23], Job exists in a number of forms: the Hebrew Masoretic Text, which underlies many modern Bible translations; the Greek Septuagint made in Egypt in the last centuries BCE; and Aramaic and Hebrew manuscripts found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. It is possible that Job is the oldest of any book of the Bible written approximately 2100-1800 B.C. [2] Scholars are generally agreed that it was written between the 7th and 4th centuries BCE. The prose narratives date to before the 6th century bce, and the poetry has … Several personal and place names in the book were also associated with the patriarchal period. Literary works similar in some ways to the Book of Job were written in Egypt and Mesopotamia around the time of … The Hebrew word (qsitah) translated “piece of silver” (42:11) is used elsewhere only twice (Gen. 33:19, Josh. October 31, 2017. Both times are in reference to Jacob. John Milton (Samson Agonistes), Dostoevsky (The Brothers Karamazov), Alfred Doblin (Berlin Alexanderplatz), Franz Kafka (The Trial), Carl Jung (Answer to Job), Joseph Roth (Job), Bernard Malamud and Elizabeth Brewster, whose book Footnotes to the Book of Job was a finalist[56] for the 1996 Governor General's Award for poetry in Canada. Satan accuses Job of being pious only because God has materially blessed him; if God were to take away everything that Job has, then he would surely curse God. 6. Reception of Job in Visual Art. Previously he has only heard, but now his eyes have seen God, and "therefore I retract/ And repent in dust and ashes. He is the host of "Point of View" (USA Radio Network) heard on 360 radio outlets nationwide as well as on the Internet (www.pointofview.net) and shortwave. 27:8). Archibald MacLeish's drama, JB, one of the most prominent uses of the Book of Job in modern literature, was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1959. So when was the Hebrew Bible written? 6. Because the book of Job shares a similar construction and theme, perhaps Solomon also wrote Job. He is also a regular guest on "Prime Time America" (Moody Broadcasting Network) and "Fire Away" (American Family Radio). [47] This reading pays little attention to the Job of the dialogue sections of the book,[48] but it was the tradition taken up by the Epistle of James in the New Testament, which presents Job as one whose patience and endurance should be emulated by believers (James 5:7–11). Kerby Anderson is president of Probe Ministries International. B. [3] The anonymous author was almost certainly an Israelite, although he has set his story outside Israel, in southern Edom or northern Arabia, and makes allusion to places as far apart as Mesopotamia and Egypt. [40] Wisdom cannot be invented or purchased, it says; God alone knows the meaning of the world, and he grants it only to those who live in reverence before him. And if you want to do more in depth study, here is the best list of online commentaries on the Book of Job. ", Personal Development/Relationships Emails. Well, the gender-neutral language of newer Bible translations is "bad…, I was told in an Old Testament class that Isaiah was written by two authors. The Russian film Leviathan also draws themes from the Book of Job. Rabbinic tradition ascribes it to Moses, but scholars generally agree that it was written between the 7th and 4th centuries BCE, with the 6th century BCE as the most likely period for various reasons. The book of Job was also found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. [15] In 42:1–6 Job makes his final response, confessing God's power and his own lack of knowledge "of things beyond me which I did not know". Job lived 140 years after his calamities (42:16). (Have you been visited by Jehovah's Witnesses lately? He asks God to test this by removing the prosperity of Job, the most righteous of all God's servants. There is also a tomb of Job outside the city of Salalah in Oman. The Book of Job is estimated to have been written in the time of the Patriarchs, between 1900 and 1700 B.C. Terrence Malick's 2011 film The Tree of Life, which won the Palme d'Or, is heavily influenced by the themes of the Book of Job, as the film starts with a quote from the beginning of God's speech to Job. The Book of Job is one of the literary masterpieces of all time, and provides a profound discussion on the suffering of a just man. But you can send us an email and we'll get back to you, asap. Ones understanding of Date (below) contributes to one’s understanding of the author C. Jacques Bolduc suggested in his commentary of 1637 that the book of Job may have been authored in a secondary way by Moses who found it in its original Aramaic form and translated it into Hebrew 2 1. Job lived in the land of _____. This was not possible later under the Mosaic Law if a daughter’s brothers were still living (Num. The usual view is that he admits to being wrong to challenge God and now repents "in dust and ashes" (42:6), but the Hebrew is difficult, and an alternative understanding is that Job says he was wrong to repent and mourn and does not retract any of his arguments. The majority of the debate section in the book of Job is in prose form. In the Reformation Martin Luther explained how Job's confession of sinfulness and worthlessness underlay his saintliness, and John Calvin's Job demonstrated the doctrine of the resurrection and the ultimate certainty of divine justice. In Palestinian folklore Job's place of trial is Al-Joura, a village outside the town of Al Majdal (Ashkelon). 2. Uz. Select the characteristics influencing the style in which Job was written. Modern works based on the book include Ralph Vaughan Williams's Job: A Masque for Dancing, French composer Darius Milhaud's Cantata From Job, and Joseph Stein's Broadway interpretation Fiddler on the Roof, based on the Tevye the Dairyman stories by Sholem Aleichem. [37], In the poetic dialogues Job's friends see his suffering and assume he must be guilty, since God is just. THE BOOK OF JOB. added). It may not be altered or edited in any way. Footnotes are used for additional information on topics, sometimes givin… Examples include (a) Sheba – a grandson of Abraham, (b) Tema – another grandson of Abraham, (c) Eliphaz – a son of Esau, (d) Uz – a nephew of Abraham. Its poetry, language, and style indicate that it was originally written in Hebrew. 3. Further information about Probe's materials and ministry may be obtained by contacting us at: Probe Ministries "[9], Job laments the day of his birth; he would like to die, but even that is denied to him. What makes the bible a better source than any other fiction book that has been written by anyone at…. Probe Ministries is a non-profit ministry whose mission is to assist the church in renewing the minds of believers with a Christian worldview and to equip the church to engage the world for Christ. Answer: The book of Job is one of the world’s oldest, most influential, and most powerfully written works of literature. [43] Job's reply to God's final speech is longer than his first and more complicated. What is your position? 2001 W. Plano Parkway, Suite 2000 The name of the book of Job in the Bible comes from its central character. Joni Mitchell composed The Sire of Sorrow (Job's Sad Song.) [20] Rabbinic tradition ascribes it to Moses, but scholars generally agree that it was written between the 7th and 4th centuries BCE, with the 6th century BCE as the most likely period for various reasons. Job 1:1 says he was from the land of Uz, who was a grandson of Shem and a son of Aram (Genesis 10:22-23). [44] In the concluding part of the frame narrative God restores and increases his prosperity, indicating that the divine policy on retributive justice remains unchanged. Job was probably the oldest book written, but Genesis is the oldest chronologically, as in content. (972) 941-4565 However, as with most books of that antiquity, the dates are not certain. The date of the book is unknown. True. [49] When Christianity began interpreting Job 19:23–29 (verses concerning a "redeemer" whom Job hopes can save him from God) as a prophecy of Christ,[50] the predominant Jewish view became "Job the blasphemer", with some rabbis even saying that he was rightly punished by God because he had stood by while Pharaoh massacred the innocent Jewish infants. 42:15). it asks, and concludes that it has been hidden from man (chapter 28). Jewish liturgy does not use readings from the Book of Job in the manner of the Pentateuch, Prophets, or Five Megillot, although it is quoted at funerals and times of mourning. 1. prince in the Egyptian Execration texts. This could account for: Date of The Book of Job Date - 2180 BC Approximately. He produces a daily syndicated radio commentary and writes editorials that have appeared in papers such as the Dallas Morning News, the Miami Herald, the San Jose Mercury, and the Houston Post. [34] The Satan (or The Adversary) raises the question of whether there is such a thing as disinterested righteousness: if God rewards righteousness with prosperity, will men not act righteously from selfish motives? Written by Moses, according to both Jewish and early Christian scholars. 7. All reproductions of this document must contain the copyright notice (i.e., Copyright 2020 Probe Ministries) and this Copyright/Limitations notice. If Solomon was the author, the date would be around 950 B.C. His speeches neither explain Job's suffering, nor defend divine justice, nor enter into the courtroom confrontation that Job has demanded, nor respond to his oath of innocence. The book of Job explores the nature of true piety and the problem of innocent suffering. 5. God gives Satan permission to take Job's wealth and kill his children and servants, but Job nonetheless praises God: "Naked I came from my mother's womb, and naked shall I return there; the Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord. after 2350 BC and before 1750 BC (Job […] Reply. Because we … If Moses was the author, the date would be circa 1440 B.C. A 2014 Malayalam film called "Iyobinte Pusthakam" tells the story of a man who is losing everything in his life and also has parallels with Dostoevsky's (The Brothers Karamazov). [5], 1. [41] God possesses wisdom because he grasps the complexities of the world (28:24–26) – a theme which looks forward to God's speech in chapters 38–41 with its repeated refrain "Where were you when...? Job makes a brief response, but God's monologue resumes, never addressing Job directly. JOB, BOOK OF. [39] Elihu rejects the arguments of both parties: Job is wrong to accuse God of injustice, as God is greater than human beings, and nor are the friends correct; for suffering, far from being a punishment, may "rescue the afflicted from their affliction" and make them more amenable to revelation – literally, "open their ears" (36:15). Literary works similar in some ways to the Book of Job were written in Egypt and Mesopotamia around the time of the patriarchs. He suggests that the wicked have taken advantage of the needy and the helpless, who remain in significant hardship, but God does nothing to punish them (24:1–12). The anonymous author was almost certainly an Israelite, although he … The Book of Job includes no references to the Mosaic institutions (priesthood, laws, tabernacle, special religious days and feasts). This document may not be repackaged in any form for sale or resale. So Job died, old and full of days” (42:10-17, emp. [26] The three books share attitudes and assumptions but differ in their conclusions: Proverbs makes confident statements about the world and its workings that are flatly contradicted by Job and Ecclesiastes. ", "Does the Bible Say Man Will Live Forever on the Earth? The premiere of the opera was held on 21 September 2015 on the main stage of the international multidisciplinary festival Gogolfest. info@probe.org a vast resource of knowledge a profound depth of thought. [45], In the Second Temple period (500 BCE – 70 CE) Job began being transformed into something more patient and steadfast, with his suffering a test of virtue and a vindication of righteousness for the glory of God. Date of Writing: The date of the authorship of the Book of Job would be determined by the author of the Book of Job. [46] The process of "sanctifying" Job began with the Greek Septuagint translation (c. 200 BCE) and was furthered in the Testament of Job (1st century BCE – 1st century CE), which makes him the hero of patience. When the dialogue between Job and his three wise friends finally stalemates, and before Job’s last defense (chs. Where in the Bible does it say about the continent…, There's a controversy brewing over the "gender-neutral" TNIV Bible. The Book of Job is the only book in the Hebrew Bible concerning which the Talmud debates as to when it took place. If Moses was the author, the date would be around 1440 B.C. The book of Job opens with the words: “There was a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job…” (Job 1:1). 6. The medieval Jewish scholar Maimonides declared his story a parable, and the medieval Christian Thomas Aquinas wrote a detailed commentary declaring it true history. a region at the south of _____. However, they accuse Job of committing sin and believe that his suffering derived from God's judgement and thus, warranted. Is this true and if it is does that change the validity of the prophecies…, Does the Bible Say Man Will Live Forever on the Earth? His three friends, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite, console him. The English name is derived from He holds masters degrees from Yale University (science) and from Georgetown University (government). Various communities throughout history have found the book of Job to be a rich resource for producing visual art that seeks to soothe sufferers, spread hope, and even encourage rebels. Disclaimer and Explanation of Citations and Notations: The evidence here is largely gleaned from Protestant source material (my tradition), and is presented in a way that argues toward Job being an ancient composition (my view); but the evidence also mentions there are numerous other views on this. [33], The biblical concept of righteousness was rooted in the covenant-making God who had ordered creation for communal well-being, and the righteous were those who invested in the community, showing special concern for the poor and needy (see Job's description of his life in chapter 31). It is uncertain exactly when the book was written and who wrote it but Jewish tradition says Job was its author. Job is restored to health, riches, and social standing. The book of Job then concludes: “After this Job lived one hundred and forty years, and saw his children and grandchildren for four generations. It wasn't written to a specific person, but is a history or chronicle of some of the events of Job's life. The hymn does not place any emphasis on retributive justice, stressing instead the inaccessibility of wisdom. 29–31), the vain attempt of a brash younger voice to explain Job’s plight, and Yahweh’s own breaking-in on the scene, the author introduces a poetic essay on wisdom that exposes the limits of all human wisdom. Neil Simon wrote God's Favorite which is a modern retelling of the Book of Job. Two speeches by God (chapters 38:1–40:2 and 40:6–41:34, 42:7–8), with Job's responses. The Book of Job is full of fascinating paradoxes: despite it is the oldest book of the Bible (Job 19:23), it is very badly known, despite the fact that many details, even insignificant, about the life of Job are known this character is merely Verses from the book of Job figured prominently in the plot of the film Mission: Impossible (1996). He has another ten children, and he lives to see his surviving children to the fourth generation. A bibliography of all referenced works is given, and citations are in a parenthetical form with author reference to that bibliography. Job was also a name of a 19th-century-B.C. The three (Elihu, the fourth friend introduced in chapter 32 is not mentioned here) are told to make a burnt offering with Job as their intercessor, "for only to him will I show favour". Open gallery view The Book of Job has aspects that seem to predate the Babylonian Exile that began in 586 BCE, and elements that seem to post-date the exile. The author of the book of Job is unknown. True. Probe fulfills this mission through our Mind Games conferences for youth and adults, our 3-minute daily radio program, and our extensive Web site at www.probe.org. This link about Job from Ancientopedia provides solid reasons why Job is not derivative from the Sumerian stories. When was the book of Job written? The scene shifts to Heaven, where God asks Satan (Hebrew: הַשָּׂטָן‎ – haśśāṭān, literally "the accuser") for his opinion of Job's piety. [32] This assumes a world in which human choices and actions are morally significant, but experience demonstrates that suffering is frequently unmerited. Job sits in ashes, and his wife prompts him to "curse God, and die", but Job answers: "Shall we receive good from God and shall we not receive evil? [4] It is common to view the narrative frame as the original core of the book, enlarged later by the poetic dialogues and discourses, and sections of the book such as the Elihu speeches and the wisdom poem of chapter 28 as late insertions, but recent trends have tended to concentrate on the book's underlying editorial unity. Key personalities of this book include Job, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, Zophar the Naamathite, and Elihu the Buzite. [35], The book begins with the frame narrative, giving the reader an omniscient "God's eye perspective" which introduces Job as a man of exemplary faith and piety, "blameless and upright", who "fears God" and "shuns evil". The prologue on Earth introduces Job as a righteous man, blessed with wealth, sons, and daughters, who lives in the land of Uz. He sees God as, among others, intrusive and suffocating (7:17–19); unforgiving and obsessed with destroying a human target (7:20–21); angry (9:13; 14:13; 16:9; 19:11); fixated on punishment (10:13–14); and hostile and destructive (16:11–14). Since Ezekiel mentions the book of Job (Ezekiel 14:14) it must have been written before the book of Ezekiel was written (592-570 B.C.). [38], Chapter 28, the Hymn to Wisdom, introduces another theme, divine wisdom. The Book of Job (/dʒoʊb/; Hebrew: אִיּוֹב‎ – ʾIyyōḇ) is a book of the Hebrew Bible. The Book of Job may be divided into two sections of prose narrative, consisting of a prologue (chapters 1–2) and an epilogue (chapter 42:7–17), and intervening poetic disputation (chapters 3–42:6). Prologue in two scenes, the first on Earth, the second in Heaven (Job 1–2), 2. His story has the same basic outline as in the Bible, although the three friends are replaced by his brothers, and his wife stays by his side.[52][58]. Exodus prepares for the understanding of Christ's exodus to his Father, of his fulfillment of the whole history of salvation; Job, the sufferer, is the Old Testament icon of Christ. [57], Job (Arabic Ayyub ايوب) is one of the 25 prophets mentioned by name in the Quran, where he is lauded as a steadfast and upright worshipper (Q.38:44). "[42], When God finally speaks he neither explains the reason for Job's suffering (revealed to the reader in the prologue in heaven) nor defends his justice. […] but an even earlier reference is found in the Book of Job, which many believe to be one of the oldest books in the Bible. [24], Job, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Proverbs belong to the genre of wisdom literature, sharing a perspective that they themselves call the "way of wisdom". The Problem of Evil and Pragmatic Recognition (pp. [12], God speaks from a whirlwind. [25] Wisdom means both a way of thinking and a body of knowledge gained through such thinking, as well as the ability to apply it to life. For example, Abraham lived 175 years. [13] Elihu (a character not previously mentioned) intervenes to state that wisdom comes from God, who reveals it through dreams and visions to those who will then declare their knowledge. Several suggestions have been put forth as plausible authors: The character Job appears in the 6th-century BCE Book of Ezekiel (although the book has later additions ) as a man of antiquity renowned for his righteousness, and the author of the Book of Job has apparently chosen this legendary hero for his parable. 5. [11] He moves away from the pious attitude as shown in the prologue and begins to berate God for the disproportionate wrath against him. The book of Job was written down by the Maccabees as with most of the other books of the Old Testament. [28] Several texts from ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt offer parallels to Job,[29] and while it is impossible to tell whether the author of Job was influenced by any of them, their existence suggests that he was the recipient of a long tradition of reflection on the existence of inexplicable suffering. [14] Instead they contrast Job's weakness with divine wisdom and omnipotence: "Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth?" In your article "The Authority of the Bible" you said it was written on three continents (Africa, Asia and Europe). The book of Job is one of the earliest Bible books written. Scholars have debated whether the texts of the Hebrew Bible were written before 586 B.C.E.—when the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem, razed the First Temple and exiled the Jews—or later on, in the Persian or Hellenistic period. 4. 7. 42:15). Some believe it may have been written in the time of Solomon (950 B.C.) While no one knows for sure, the most frequent opinion I’ve heard is that the Book of Job was probably written during the time of the Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob). The book of Job begins with a prologue (Job 1-2), which describes a wager between Satan and God, in which Satan (“the adversary”) bets God that Job–a particularly pious man–will abandon his piety and curse God if all his wealth and well-being are taken away. Job, knowing he is innocent, concludes that God must be unjust. 24:32). It addresses the problem of theodicy, meaning why God permits evil in the world, through the experiences of the eponymous protagonist, who suffers many tragedies from Satan (Hebrew: הַשָּׂטָן‎ – haśśāṭān, literally "the accuser"). How do we know it was written then since we don’t know who wrote the book and when Job lived? [3], The Book of Job consists of a prose prologue and epilogue narrative framing poetic dialogues and monologues. [38] He retains his piety throughout the story (contradicting Satan's suspicion that his righteousness is due to the expectation of reward), but makes clear from his first speech that he agrees with his friends that God should and does reward righteousness. The many similarities to the Pentateuch in the prose portion of the book tend to point to Moses as the writer. This was not possible later under the Mosaic Law if a daughter’s brothers were still living (Num. Job's influence can also be seen in the Coen brothers' 2009 film, A Serious Man, which was nominated for two Academy Awards. The most likely candidates are Job, Elihu, Moses or Solomon. It was there that God rewarded him with a Fountain of Youth that removed whatever illnesses he had and restored his youth. [55] The cantillation signs for the large poetic section in the middle of the Book of Job differ from those of most of the biblical books, using a system shared with it only by Psalms and Proverbs. The dialogues of Job and his friends are followed by a poem (the "hymn to wisdom") on the inaccessibility of wisdom: "Where is wisdom to be found?" Writers Job has inspired or influenced include[original research?] This would confirm Job to be of post flood birth. Its author is unknown yet it is possible that Job himself wrote it. Musical settings from Job include Orlande de Lassus's 1565 cycle of motets, the Sacrae Lectiones Novem ex Propheta Job, and George Frideric Handel's use of Job 19:25 ("I know that my redeemer liveth") as an aria in his 1741 oratorio Messiah. Job’s daughters were heirs of his estate along with their brothers (Job. [21], The language of Job stands out for its conservative spelling and for its exceptionally large number of words and forms not found elsewhere in the Bible. [36][37] The contrast between the frame and the poetic dialogues and monologues, in which Job never learns of the opening scenes in heaven or of the reason for his suffering, creates a sense of dramatic irony between the divine view of the Adversary's wager, and the human view of Job's suffering "without any reason" (2:3).